September 2007

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Volume 19 Issue 9
Despite meta-analyses showing either similar rates or only slightly increased rates of stent thrombosis in patients with a drug-eluting stent (DES),1–5 clinicians remain concerned about the risk of late stent thrombosis in these patients. It is a unc…
During the fourth week of gestation, the primitive atrium divides into right and left atria by forming two septa, the septum primum and secundum. As the septum primum grows from the dorsocranial wall, two openings develop, the foramen primum at the l…
Percutaneous revascularization of diseased saphenous vein bypass grafts (SVGs) remains a difficult challenge for the interventional cardiologist despite major advances in catheter-based reperfusion therapies, adjunctive pharmacology and stent technol…
Stent thrombosis is rare, but very serious, with potentially fatal consequences following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Traditionally, it has been classified as acute, within 48 hours, subacute up to 30 days, and late, corresponding to al…
Coronary angiography in the early phase of ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) usually identifies total thrombotic occlusion of a single infarct-related artery.1 However, simultaneous acute occlusion of all major epicardial coronary arte…
Treating chronic total occlusions (CTOs) remains one of the major challenges in interventional cardiology. In the last 20 years, as the procedural outcomes of intervention for CTOs have significantly increased as a function of improved guidewires and…
Despite advances in percutaneous coronary intervention techniques over the last two decades, the unprotected left main has largely remained the domain of cardiovascular surgery. The subset of patients with left main disease in the Collaborative Study…
The physiologic effects of the majority of coronary artery stenosis cannot be determined accurately by conventional angiographic approaches.1,2 Coronary flow reserve3,4 (CFR), and, more recently, fractional flow reserve5 (FFR) have been proposed for…
The widespread popularity of drug-eluting stents (DES) had a dramatic impact on the modern interventional therapy of coronary artery disease; accordingly, the cardiac surgical volume has experienced a corresponding decrease. Like the introduction of…
Direct communication between the right pulmonary artery and the left atrium is an unusual variation of a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula. In fact, there are only about 50 cases reported in the literature.1 This is one condition in which clinical exam…