January 2003

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Volume 15 Issue 2
The area of the peripheral puncture site is decreased by 31% with 5 Fr sheaths compared to 6 Fr sheaths (2.2 mm2 vs. 3.1 mm2, respectively), by 49% in comparison with 7 Fr sheaths (4.3 mm2), and by 61% in comparison with 8 Fr sheaths (5.6 mm2). Previ…
Percutaneous coronary angioplasty (currently summarized under the term PCI) started 25 years ago with roughly 10 French (Fr) guiding catheters that left no room for contrast medium injection. The actual angioplasty gear (ballon catheter with or witho…
The pericardium is a two-layered fibro-serous sac that encloses the heart and the roots of the great vessels. The potential space normally contains only a small amount of fluid, approximately 15–30 ml, comprised mainly of an ultrafiltrate of plasma a…
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) may occur after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), particularly in patients with baseline chronic renal failure (CRF) and diabetes mellitus.1–3 We have reported on the adverse impact of CIN post-PCI in patie…
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a well-recognized risk of coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), with an overall estimated incidence up to 15% and less than 1% incidence of severe CIN requiring dialysis.1 Although th…
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common congenital cardiac anomaly. Depending on the size of the PDA, patients may be asymptomatic or in heart failure. Treatment is recommended because of the risk of infective endocarditis and congestive heart fai…